Jai Prakash Narayan was an Indian political leader and theorist. Jayaprakash Narayan is popularly called JP or Lok Nayak. He is remembered for Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s call for “total revolution” against the Emergency. In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, in recognition of his social service. Today, on his birth anniversary on 11th October, let us try to remember him through this article.
Birth and education
Jai Prakash Narayan was born on October 11, 1902. Jayaprakash Narayan ‘Srivastava’ was born on 11 October 1902 in Sitab Diara village, Saran district, Bengal Presidency, British India (present-day Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh, India).
He holds an M.A. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin, and a B.A. in Behavioral Sciences from The Ohio State University. Has received the title of.
In Wisconsin, Jayaprakash was introduced to Karl Marx’s ‘Das Kapital’. The news of the Bolsheviks’ success in the Russian Civil War forced Jayaprakash to conclude that Marxism was the only way to alleviate the suffering of the masses. He studied under the Indian intellectual and communist theorist M.N. Studied Roy’s books in depth. His paper on sociology, “Cultural Variation”, was declared the best of the year.
Entry into politics
JP returned to India from America at the end of 1929 as a Marxist. After his arrival in India, he joined the Indian National Congress. He was a follower of Gandhiji. In 1932, he was sentenced to one year in prison for participating in the civil disobedience movement against British rule.
Upon his release from prison he played a leading role in the formation of the Congress Socialist Party, a leftist group within the Congress Party. He was imprisoned again by the British in the year 1939 for opposing the participation of Indians on behalf of Britain in the Second World War. JP managed to escape from jail but was caught again in 1943. After his release in 1946 he tried to persuade Congress leaders to adopt a more militant policy against British rule. But ultimately in 1948, he left the Congress Party along with most of the Congress socialists.
life after independence
In 1952 he formed the Praja Socialist Party. Soon becoming dissatisfied with party politics, he announced in 1954 that he would henceforth devote his life exclusively to the Bhoodan Yagya movement founded by Vinoba Bhave, which sought to distribute land among the landless. Additionally, between 1947 and 1953, Jayaprakash Narayan was also the President of the All India Railwaymen’s Federation, the largest labor union of the Indian Railways.
In 1975, Indira Gandhi declared emergency, against which there were widespread movements across the country and JP emerged as the face of this protest. JP’s slogan of “Total Revolution” echoed from Gandhi Maidan in Patna to Parliament.
“भ्रष्टाचार मिटाना, बेरोजगारी दूर करना, शिक्षा में क्रांति लाना, आदि ऐसी चीजें हैं जो आज की व्यवस्था से पूरी नहीं हो सकतीं; क्योंकि वे इस व्यवस्था की ही उपज हैं। वे तभी पूरी हो सकती हैं जब सम्पूर्ण व्यवस्था बदल दी जाए और सम्पूर्ण व्यवस्था के परिवर्तन के लिए क्रान्ति, ‘सम्पूर्ण क्रान्ति’ आवश्यक है।” जय प्रकाश नारायण
He was known as ‘Loknayak’ due to his leadership during the Emergency and his call for ‘complete revolution’. According to Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, the total revolution includes seven revolutions – political, economic, social, cultural, intellectual, educational and spiritual revolution. Combining these seven revolutions constitutes a complete revolution.
Jayaprakash Narayan died at his residence in Patna on October 8, 1979 due to heart disease and diabetes. In his honour, the then Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh had announced 7 days of national mourning.
- Bharat Ratna, 1999 (posthumously), India’s highest civilian award
- Rashtrabhushan Award of FIE Foundation, Ichalkaranji
- Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1965
Bharat Ratna Award List
|Bharat Ratna 1954||C. Rajagopalachari||Activist, statesman, and lawyer|
|Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan||India’s first Vice-President and second President|
|C. V. Raman||Physicists, mathematicians, and scientists|
|Bharat Ratna 1955||Bhagwan Das||Activist, philosopher, and educationist|
|M. Visvesvaraya||Civil engineer, statesman, and Diwan of Mysore|
|Jawaharlal Nehru||Activist and author served as the Prime Minister of India|
|Bharat Ratna 1957||Govind Ballabh Pant||Activist and first Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh|
|Bharat Ratna 1958||Dhondo Keshav Karve||Social reformer and educator|
|Bharat Ratna 1961||Bidhan Chandra Roy||Physician, political leader, philanthropist, educationist, and social worker|
|Purushottam Das Tandon||Activist and speaker of the United Provinces Legislative Assembly|
|Bharat Ratna 1962||Rajendra Prasad||Activist, lawyer, statesman, and scholar|
|Bharat Ratna 1963||Zakir Husain||Activist, economist, and education philosopher served as a Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University and the Governor of Bihar|
|Pandurang Vaman Kane||Indologist and Sanskrit scholar, known for his five-volume literary work|
|Bharat Ratna 1966||Lal Bahadur Shastri||Activist and served as the second Prime Minister of India|
|Bharat Ratna 1971||Indira Gandhi||First women Prime Minister of India|
|Bharat Ratna 1975||V. V. Giri||Trade Unionist|
|Bharat Ratna 1976||K. Kamaraj||Independence activist and statesman, former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu|
|Bharat Ratna 1980||Mother Teresa||Catholic nun and the founder of the Missionaries of Charity.|
|1983||Vinoba Bhave||Activist, social reformer, and a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi|
|Bharat Ratna 1987||Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan||First noncitizen, independence activist|
|Bharat Ratna 1988||M. G. Ramachandran||Actor turned politician, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu|
|Bharat Ratna 1990||B.R. Ambedkar||Social reformer and leader of the Dalits|
|Nelson Mandela||Leader of the Anti-Apartheid Movement in South Africa, President of South Africa|
|Bharat Ratna 1991||Rajiv Gandhi||Gandhi was the ninth Prime Minister of India serving from 1984 to 1989.|
|Vallabhbhai Patel||Activist and first Deputy Prime Minister of India|
|Morarji Desai||Activist, and Prime Minister of India|
|Bharat Ratna 1992||Abul Kalam Azad||Activist and first Minister of education|
|J. R. D. Tata||Industrialist, philanthropist, and aviation pioneer|
|Satyajit Ray||Director, filmmaker, writer, novelist|
|Bharat Ratna 1997||Gulzarilal Nanda||Activist, and interim Prime Minister of India.|
|Aruna Asaf Ali||Activist|
|A.P.J Abdul Kalam||Aerospace and defense scientist|
|Bharat Ratna 1998||M. S. Subbulakshmi||Carnatic classical vocalist|
|Chidambaram Subramaniam||Activist and former Minister of Agriculture of India|
|Bharat Ratna 1999||Jayaprakash Narayan||Activist, and social reformer|
|Ravi Shankar||Musician, sitar player|
|Bharat Ratna 2001||Lata Mangeshkar||Singer|
|Bismillah Khan||Hindustani classical shehnai player|
|Bharat Ratna 2009||Bhimsen Joshi||Hindustani classical vocalist|
|Bharat Ratna 2014||C. N. R. Rao||Chemist and professor, author|
|Bharat Ratna 2015||Madan Mohan Malaviya||Scholar and educational reformer.|
|Atal Bihari Bajpayee||Elected nine times to the Lok Sabha, twice to the Rajya Sabha, and served as the Prime Minister of India for three terms.|
|Bharat Ratna 2019||Pranab Mukherjee||Indian politician, and senior leader in the Indian National Congress.|
|Nanaji Deshmukh||A social activist from India, education, health, and rural self-reliance.|
|Bhupen Hazarika||Indian playback singer, lyricist, musician, singer, poet, and filmmaker from Assam.|